Birth control is characterized as protection from conception, pregnancy. To a wide extent, contraception is the effects on the body of a woman or a man, which make it possible to prevent conception, terminate a new pregnancy and thereby prevent the birth of an unwanted child. The term “contraceptives” refers to pharmacological agents that prevent pregnancy.
Oral birth control
The effectiveness of these drugs in the case of a proper use – more than 99%, with a typical – up to 91%. Combined oral contraceptives, or COCs, are drugs that affect a woman’s body with the help of hormones. Accuracy and regularity are important conditions. The woman should take the pill regularly at one and the same time, or there will appear side effects. It is impossible to predict the effect of combined oral contraceptives but in the majority of cases, its effectiveness reaches 99%. However: you cannot use drugs during pregnancy, breastfeeding.
|Yasmin||It is a low-dose monophasic oral contraceptive with antiandrogenic effect. It contains ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone (30 mcg/3 mg). The contraceptive effect is achieved due to a number of factors, the most important of which are inhibition of ovulation and changes in the cervical mucus viscosity. Endometrium remains unprepared for implantation of the egg.|
|Alesse||It is a contraceptive combined estrogen-progestin drug. It contains ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (100 mcg/20 mcg). Under the influence of levonorgestrel, the blockade of the release of the hypothalamus hormones (LH and FSH), suppression of secretion of pituitary gonadotropic hormones by the pituitary gland take place. It leads to inhibition of maturation and release of the ovum ready for fertilization. Contraceptive action is enhanced by ethinyl estradiol. It retains a high viscosity of the cervical mucus (makes it difficult for sperm to enter the uterus).|
|Ortho-tri-cyclen||It is a combined oral contraceptive, the effect of which is caused by central and peripheral mechanisms. It contains ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate (35 mcg/250 mcg). Suppressing the secretion of gonadotropins, Orth-Tri-Cyclen prevents the maturation of the eggs in the ovaries and ovulation. In addition, it increases the viscosity of the cervical mucus, which makes it difficult for sperm to enter the uterus. It also affects the endometrial epithelium, reducing the likelihood of the egg implantation.|
|Mircette||It is a monophasic hormonal oral contraceptive containing a combination of an estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) and progestogen (desogestrel) (150 mcg/20 mcg). It Inhibits pituitary secretion of gonadotropic hormones. The contraceptive effect is achieved due to the effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system. Desogestrel is a synthetic progestogen. When taken, it inhibits the synthesis of LH and FSH in the pituitary gland and, preventing the maturation of the follicle, effectively blocks ovulation. It has an anti-estrogenic, weak androgenic (anabolic) effect, does not obtain an estrogenic effect. Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic analog of the follicular hormone estradiol. It is involved in the formation of the menstrual cycle with the hormone of the corpus luteum. It interferes with maturing of the egg cell, capable of fertilization.|
|Levlen||It is a monophasic oral contraceptive. The main active ingredient is the synthetic progestogen levonorgestrel, a derivative of nortestosterone. The estrogen component is synthetic estrogen ethinyl estradiol, which increases the contraceptive effect of levonorgestrel. Ethinyl estradiol, when taken orally, is 100 times more potent than natural estradiol. This birth control contains ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (150 mcg/30 mcg).|
|Yaz||It is a hormonal contraceptive with anti-mineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic effect. The contraceptive effect of combined oral contraceptives is not based on the interaction of various factors, the most important of which are the suppression of ovulation and changes in the properties of the cervical secretion. As a result of such changes, it becomes less permeable to sperm.|
|Levonorgestrel||It is a synthetic progestogen with contraceptive action, expressed progestogenic and antiestrogenic properties. When taken orally in the recommended dosing regimen, levonorgestrel suppresses ovulation and fertilization. It can also cause changes in the endometrium that prevent the implantation of a fertilized egg. It increases the viscosity of cervical secretions, which prevents the progress of sperm. Levonorgestrel is ineffective if implantation has already occurred.|
|Ovral G||It contains ethinyl estradiol and norgestrel. It is a combination of birth control pills containing female hormones that prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary). This drug also causes changes in your cervical mucosa and uterus, making it difficult for sperm to enter the uterine cavity and make it more difficult for a fertilized egg to attach to it. Ethinyl estradiol and norgestrel are used as contraception to prevent pregnancy. Ethinyl estradiol and norgestrel can also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.|
|Plan-B||It is a medication for emergency contraception. Its active ingredient (levonorgestrel) is an artificial progestogen with contraceptive effect, expressed anti-estrogenic properties. If the recommended dosage is followed, the medicine suppresses ovulation, as well as fertilization, but only on the condition that sexual intercourse occurred during the pre-ovulatory period, when the probability of conception is high.|
Other effective contraceptive means
Intrauterine system (IUD)
The effectiveness of such contraception ranges from 99.2 to 99.8%. The intrauterine device prevents the fertilized egg from attaching to the uterus. The intrauterine device releases the hormone progesterone, which provides triple protection against pregnancy. The IUD is an alternative for women who are contraindicated for oral hormonal contraceptives. However: IUDs increase the risk of inflammation, cause painful periods and increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. It is used for a long period – 5 years.
There are two types of condoms – female and male. This is the only type of contraception that will protect not only from unwanted pregnancy but also from sexually transmitted infections. The effectiveness of male condoms – 98%, female – 95%. The use of this method depends on the man and it is not always possible to control its use. However: the effectiveness of male condoms is reduced due to oily substances, creams or damage.
Hormonal implants and injections
A hormonal implant is inserted under arm skin, where it releases hormones. This method of contraception 90-99% protects. He works for 5 years. But hormonal injections are administered every 1-3 months. Nevertheless: when using a hormonal implant, you can become pregnant only after 5 years. These types of contraception can change the menstrual cycle, cause headaches, decrease in sexual desire and increase in weight. Doctors do not recommend to use them by women without children.
The diaphragm is a cap with a flexible rim, inserted into the female genital organ. This method is effective when used with spermicides – substances in the form of vaginal suppositories, creams, tablets, which are inserted into the female genitalia. The diaphragm with spermicides protects from unplanned pregnancy by 92-96%. By itself, the diaphragm is effective at 71-88%, and spermicides – up to 70%. However: the diaphragm must remain there for at least 4 hours after intercourse.
There are two types of sterilization: male (vasectomy) and female. This method has almost a 100% contraceptive effect. This method has no side effects, sterilization does not affect the process of hormone production and does not violate the menstrual cycle. The greatest disadvantage – the irreversibility of the method. This means that after sterilization, a woman and a man will not be able to have children in the future. There is also a risk of ectopic pregnancy.
This type of contraceptive can save a woman from unwanted pregnancy by 99% with proper use, but with a typical rate, its effectiveness is reduced to 91%. It is stuck to the skin. It releases hormones into the human body which effectiveness lasts only 7 days. That is why the patch needs to be changed weekly. However: a hormonal patch is not recommended for women weighing more than 90 kg.
A typical use of the vaginal ring provides a 91% effectiveness, but if properly used, it can protect a woman from unwanted pregnancy by 99%. Hormones enter the blood and provide protection for a month. However: the ring can change the nature of menstruation and has side effects such as impaired blood circulation and the risk of venous thromboembolism.
This is the most ancient method of contraception. Its essence lies in the fact that the man doesn’t ejaculate into a female body. The effectiveness of this method is up to 80%. According to gynecologists, the most unreliable is the method of interrupted sexual intercourse, as well as the calendar method when the day of ovulation and “risk” days are calculated.
Are all hormonal contraceptives effective?
Yes, they are. But it depends on their proper intake because modern drugs are low-dose (they have a small number of hormones). It is best to start taking contraceptives from the first day of menstruation, then you do not need to be further protected. If you start using the medicine on the last day of your period, you will have to protect sexual intercourse with the help of barrier drugs for another 2 weeks. Otherwise, the risk of ovulation and subsequent pregnancy is high. In addition, it is important to carefully study the instructions for use of a particular drug and strictly follow it.
Watch the video of how to choose the appropriate hormonal contraception:
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