The estrogen component – ethinyl estradiol – is a substance of a natural origin. After being taken, It quickly turns into identical to the hormone produced by the ovaries and provides its own effects. It activates the proliferation of the reproductive system epithelium, including endometrial growth and the first phase of the menstrual cycle, preparing the endometrium for progesterone action, increased libido in the middle of the cycle, affects the metabolism of fats, proteins, carbohydrates and electrolytes, stimulates the production of globulin by liver, renin, triglycerides and blood clotting factors. Due to the participation in the implementation of positive and negative feedback in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system, ethinyl estradiol can also cause moderate central effects. It plays an important role in the development of bone tissue and the formation of bone structure.
Another component is the active synthetic gestagen – norgestrel, which is superior in effect to the natural hormone of the corpus luteum progesterone. It contributes to the transition of the uterine mucous membrane from the proliferation stage to the secretory phase. It reduces the excitability and contractility of the muscles of the uterus and fallopian tubes. It also stimulates the development of terminal elements of the mammary glands. It blocks the secretion of hypothalamic factors releasing luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. It inhibits the formation of gonadotropic hormones, inhibits ovulation. It provides slight androgenic properties.
- Prevention of osteoporosis in the postmenopausal period;
- Primary/secondary amenorrhea;
- Irregular menstrual cycle;
- Estrogen deficiency (after oophorectomy for non-malignant diseases or after radiation castration);
- Hormone replacement therapy for menopausal disorders, involutional changes of the skin and urogenital tract, menopausal depressions, as well as symptoms of estrogen deficiency due to natural menopause or hypogonadism, sterilization or primary ovarian dysfunction in women with a non-removed uterus.
- Pregnancy and breastfeeding;
- Severe liver disease;
- Breast cancer (diagnosed or suspected);
- Liver tumors, including in medical history;
- Vaginal bleeding of unknown etiology;
- Severe hypertriglyceridemia;
- Acute arterial thrombosis/thromboembolism;
- Deep vein thrombosis in the acute stage, thromboembolism presently diagnosed or found in a patient card;
- Hormone-dependent tumor/hormone-dependent precancerous disease (diagnosed or suspected).
Take Ovral G carefully in the following cases:
- congenital hyperbilirubinemia;
- uterine fibroids;
- arterial hypertension;
- cholestatic jaundice/cholestatic pruritus during pregnancy.
Dosage and administration
If the patient has menstruation, the drug is started on the 5th day of the cycle, in the case of amenorrhea, very rare menstruation or postmenopausal, the drug can be started on any given day. Ovral G is taken daily for 21 days according to the instructions on the blister. Then, a 7-day break is taken. After the break, the drug is resumed according to the same regimen. The duration of the treatment course is specified by the attending physician.
Tablets are swallowed as a whole, washed down with a small amount of water. The time of day when a woman takes the drug does not matter, however, if she started taking pills at any particular time, she should follow this regimen further. If a woman has forgotten to take pills, she can take it within the next 12-24 hours. If the treatment is interrupted for a longer time, vaginal bleeding may occur.
- Gastrointestinal tract: bloating, dyspepsia, relapse of cholestatic jaundice, vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea.
- Nervous system: migraine, headache, fatigue, agitation, depression.
- Skin condition: itching, rash, chloasma, erythema nodosum.
- Reproductive system: breakthrough bleeding, changes in the intensity and frequency of uterine bleeding, pain/tension/increase in the mammary glands, dysmenorrhea, conditions similar to premenstrual syndrome, changes in vaginal secretions, intermenstrual bleeding.
There are the following symptoms of an overdose: vomiting and nausea, vaginal bleeding. There is no specific antidote, the treatment is symptomatic.