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What is Yaz?

Yaz is a combined oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone. At a therapeutic dose, drospirenone also has antiandrogenic and weak anti-mineralocorticoid properties. It is deprived of any estrogenic, glucocorticoid, and anti-glucocorticoid activities. It provides drospirenone with a pharmacological profile similar to natural progesterone. There is evidence of a reduction in the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer when taking combined oral contraceptives.

Indications

  • Contraception;
  • Treatment of moderate acne (acne vulgaris);
  • Treatment of severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Contraindications

Yaz is contraindicated in the following cases:

  • hypersensitivity to any of the components of the drug;
  • venous and arterial thrombosis and thromboembolism including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction found in the record card;
  • disorders of the cerebrovascular system;
  • diagnosed or suspected conditions preceding thrombosis (including transient ischemic attacks, angina pectoris);
  • revealed acquired or hereditary susceptibility to venous or arterial thrombosis;
  • high risk of venous or arterial thrombosis;
  • migraine with focal neurological symptoms;
  • diabetes with vascular complications;
  • liver failure and severe liver disease (until normalization of liver function indicators);
  • liver tumors (benign or malignant) now or in history;
  • severe renal failure, acute renal failure;
  • adrenal insufficiency;
  • identified hormone-dependent malignant diseases (including genitals or mammary glands) or suspicion of them;
  • bleeding from the vagina of unknown origin;
  • lactose intolerance, lactase deficiency, glucose-galactose malabsorption;
  • pregnancy;
  • breastfeeding period.

Carefully

If any of the conditions/risk factors listed below are present in the anamnesis, then the potential risk and the expected benefits of using combined oral contraceptives should be carefully weighed in each individual case. The following conditions are mentioned above:

risk factors for thrombosis and thromboembolism:

  • smoking;
  • thrombosis, myocardial infarction or cerebral circulation at a young age in one of the closest relatives;
  • obesity;
  • dyslipoproteinemia, arterial hypertension;
  • migraine;
  • valvular disease;
  • cardiac arrhythmias, prolonged immobilization, serious surgical interventions, extensive trauma;
  • diseases in which there may be violations of peripheral blood circulation: diabetes mellitus; systemic lupus erythematosus; hemolytic uremic syndrome; Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis; sickle cell anemia; as well as phlebitis of the superficial veins;
  • hypertriglyceridemia;
  • liver disease;
  • diseases that have first arisen or aggravated during pregnancy or on the background of the previous intake of sex hormones (for example, jaundice, cholestasis, gallbladder disease, otosclerosis with impairment of hearing, porphyria, herpes of pregnant women, Sydenham’s chorea).

Side effects

  • Infectious and parasitic diseases: rarely – candidiasis.
  • Blood and lymphatic system: rarely – anemia, thrombocythemia.
  • Immune system: rarely – an allergic reaction; frequency unknown -hypersensitivity.
  • Metabolism and nutrition: rarely – increased appetite, anorexia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia.
  • Mental disorders: often – emotional lability, depression, decreased libido; infrequently – nervousness, drowsiness, rarely – anorgasmia, insomnia.
  • Nervous system: often – headache; infrequently – dizziness, paresthesia; rarely – vertigo, tremor.
  • Organ of vision: rarely – conjunctivitis, dryness of the mucous membrane of the eyes.
  • Cardiovascular system: rarely – tachycardia.
  • Vessels conditions: often – migraine; infrequently – varicose veins, increased blood pressure; rarely – phlebitis, epistaxis, syncope, venous thromboembolism (VTE), arterial thromboembolism (ATE).
  • Gastrointestinal tract: often – nausea; infrequently – abdominal pain, vomiting, dyspepsia, flatulence, gastritis, diarrhea; rarely – abdominal distension, feeling of heaviness in the stomach, hiatal hernia, oral candidiasis, constipation, dry mouth.
  • Liver and biliary tract: rarely – biliary dyskinesia, cholecystitis.
  • Skin and subcutaneous tissues: infrequently – acne, itching, rash; rarely – chloasma, eczema, alopecia, acne dermatitis, dry skin, erythema nodosum, hypertrichosis, striae, contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, skin nodule; frequency unknown erythema multiforme.
  • Musculoskeletal and connective tissue: infrequently – back pain, pain in the limbs, muscle cramps.
  • Genital organs and the mammary gland: often – pain in the mammary glands, metrorrhagia, absence of menstrual-like bleeding; infrequently – vaginal candidiasis, pain in the pelvic area, enlargement of the mammary glands, fibrocystic formations in the mammary gland, bleeding from the genital tract, secretions from the genital tract, hot flushes, vaginitis, painful menstrual-like bleeding, poor menstrual-like bleeding, menstrual bleeding, dry vaginal mucosa; rarely – dyspareunia, vulvovaginitis, post-coital bleeding, withdrawal bleeding, breast hyperplasia, breast neoplasm, cervical polyp, endometrial atrophy, ovarian cyst, uterine enlargement.
  • General disorders and disorders at the injection site: infrequently – asthenia, increased sweating, edema (generalized edema, peripheral edema, swelling of the face); rarely – malaise
  • Laboratory and instrumental data: infrequently – weight gain; rarely – weight loss.

Dosage

Oral administration. Tablets should be taken in the order indicated on the pack, every day at about the same time, with a small amount of water. Yaz pills are taken without interruption in the reception. It should be taken a tablet per day consistently for 28 days. Each subsequent package should be started the next day after taking the last tablet from the previous package. Withdrawal bleeding usually starts on the 2nd to 3rd day after you start taking white inactive tablets and may not finish before taking the tablets from the next pack. Taking pills from a new pack should always be started on the same day of the week, and withdrawal bleeding will occur approximately on the same days of each month.

Overdose

Symptoms (identified on the basis of total experience with oral contraceptives) are: nausea, vomiting, spotting or metrorrhagia.

Treatment: symptomatic. There is no specific antidote. No serious violations in overdose have been reported.