Sterilization – 99.9%
The most effective method of contraception is sterilization. In men, this is a vasectomy, in women – tubal sterilization. These procedures require surgical intervention and exclude the possibility of having a child in the future. Therefore, this method of birth control is not particularly popular with young men and women. In terms of reliability, sterilization surpasses only complete abstinence. Features: It is recommended only to women who already have several children and medical contraindications to pregnancy because the ability to get pregnant is not restored. There is also a risk of ectopic pregnancy.
Oral contraceptives – 99.7%
Hormonal combined pills are one of the most reliable methods of contraception.
Their main feature is the mechanism of action on the woman’s body. They have a complex effect on the female reproductive system: ovulation is suppressed, mucus thickens in the cervical canal, and the endometrial layer in the uterus becomes thinner. While taking the pills, the ovaries are in rest, and the required dose of the hormone is provided by the drug. A thickness of cervical mucus prevents the penetration of not only sperm cells into the uterus, but also bacteria, thereby reducing the risk of infectious diseases.
However, oral contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections. Also, when using this method of contraception, blood loss during menstruation is reduced by decreasing the inner uterine layer. This condition has a positive effect on overall health, especially for women suffering from iron deficiency anemia.
Features: Combined oral contraceptives are qualitatively different from other hormonal contraceptive drugs since different tablets contain different dosages and combinations of hormones. Naturally, the gynecologist should select birth control pills. The hormonal pills of the last generation, in addition to the contraceptive effect, have a pronounced non-contraceptive effect: they have a positive effect on the condition of the skin and hair, eliminate PMS, shorten the duration of menstruation and reduce pain during this period. You can select tablets with innovative 24+4 and 26+2 dosage regimens. They reduce the non-hormonal period, which allows minimizing negative symptoms. Also, there are oral contraceptives of the latest generation, which contain the active form of folic acid in their composition. This component allows a woman to take care of not only of her health but also of the future generation. As soon as a woman decides that she is ready for the birth of a child, she can stop taking the pills being sure that her body is already prepared for pregnancy.
Intrauterine contraception – 99.2- 99.8%
This type of contraception includes the intrauterine device and the intrauterine hormonal system. They differ from each other by both in terms of reliability and mechanism of action. The spiral is placed in the uterine cavity and prevents the implantation (attachment) of a fertilized egg.
The intrauterine hormonal system is injected in the same way, but it acts differently. It regularly releases a certain amount of hormone, which acts locally. It has several effects: it increases the viscosity of mucus in the cervical canal, inhibits the mobility of the spermatozoa, and make the inner layer of the uterus (endometrium) thinner.
Features: The intrauterine hormonal system is suitable for women who are not going to become pregnant for a long time, as well as nursing mothers. It is set for 5 years, however, if necessary, it is possible to extract it earlier. The hormonal system is not an abortive contraceptive method.
Hormonal implants and injections – 90-99%
These methods of contraception work on the principle of hormone pills, only the hormone is injected into the body in other ways: intramuscular injection is carried out every 3 months (every month), a hormonal implant is injected into the upper arm and provides contraception for 5 years.
Features: it is difficult to choose without doctor’s recommendations, based on the state of female health and her individual needs. There are a number of side effects: irregular bleeding, secretions, headache, weight gain and acne.
Hormonal patch and ring – 92%
The same level of reliability in these two methods does not indicate the similarity of their use at all: the hormonal patch is stuck to the skin, and the hormonal ring must be independently inserted into the vagina.
Features: Hormonal patch must be applied every 7 days, starting from the first day of the cycle. The use of the hormonal ring is produced for one cycle. It must be inserted from the 1st to the 5th day of the cycle, and after 3 weeks (on the 22nd day) it will be removed. On the 8th day of the break, a new one is introduced.
Barrier methods: condom, diaphragm, cap, sponge – 84-85%
A condom is the only one among all the above contraceptives that protect not only from pregnancy but also against any infections and bacteria. But its low reliability suggests that this product often fails. The diaphragm, cap and sponge are also barrier methods of contraception, these devices are inserted in the vagina just before sexual intercourse.
Features: These methods of contraception require preparation for sexual intercourse – and, therefore, can significantly reduce sexual desire, cause discomfort and reduce sensitivity.
Calendar method – 80%
It involves mathematical calculations of the days on which fertilization can take place, according to the woman’s menstrual cycle. Thus, in a “dangerous” period, a couple must either refrain from sexual contact or use other methods of contraception.
Features: suitable only for women with a regular menstrual cycle, who are not confused by “love on schedule.”
Interrupted intercourse – 73%
A man should have time to remove the penis from the vagina before ejaculation. This is one of the oldest ways to prevent pregnancy, but not the most reliable. Note that a small amount of seminal fluid can be released during intercourse.
Features: When resorting to interrupted intercourse, a man has to deliberately control ejaculation. This not only distracts from the process itself, making it impossible to experience the full range of sensations for which sexual contact actually takes place, but is also medically dangerous. Thus, the volitional obstacle to reflex ejaculation leads to problems with potency and ejaculation (for example, among men with prostatitis, half regularly practiced interrupted sexual intercourse).
The lack of reliability of this birth control method negatively affects the sexual life of women. She also experiences psychological stress, which does not allow her to relax and get maximum satisfaction during intercourse. According to statistics, among women who have never experienced an orgasm, 50% were protected by this method.
Spermicides – 71%
Spermicides are called chemical contraceptives: vaginal suppositories, creams, pills, capsules. They are mainly composed of “nonoxynol” or “benzalkonium chloride”, which have a destructive effect on spermatozoa. A woman should apply chemical contraceptives each time before sexual intercourse.
Features: If pregnancy has come about with this method of contraception, this may have a bad effect on the fetus. More often, doctors recommend an abortion. In addition, chemical contraceptives often cause irritation and inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, vaginal candidiasis.
Category: Birth control
Tags: birth control pills, women's health